Update 19: 12-02-2020
''Tailored by weather'' versus ''tailored by sweat''

*PANAMA - mono-filament warp & PVA yarn weft.
- Underneath on the left you can see the technical drawing of the tailored by weather.
- Underneath on the right you can the technical drawing of the tailored by sweat.
* Conclusion 

- Weather effect (LEFT) = accentuates the body shapes by bursting effect.
* Rain, humidity, snow, wind and sun warmth have a direct influence on the deforming process.

- Sweat robot effect (RIGHT)  = specific body parts moisture ''chest, waist, hips and upper leg''. 

* Material adapts to the sweat areas ''figure hugging'' This could be interesting from a thermodynamic point of view.

*SATIN - mono-filament warp & PVA yarn weft.
- Underneath on the left you can see the technical drawing of the tailored by weather.
- Underneath on the right you can the technical drawing of the tailored by sweat.
* Conclusion

- Weather effect (LEFT) = very linear and stiff pleats effect.
* Rain, humidity, snow, wind and sun warmth have a direct influence on the deforming process.

- Sweat robot effect (RIGHT) = dynamic stiff pleats effect versus creamy satin effect.
* Very interesting to see: ''chest, waist, hips and upper leg'' sweat parts forcing the material to deform.

* Moves away from the body creating an abstract 3D effect. 

* Aesthetically the most interesting from the sweat robot experiment.


*Overall conclusion:

* Effect rain is all over the body - Effect sweat robot is on specific body parts.

Update 18: 09-02-2020 Empa sweat robot Marinero panama and satin experiment


Update 17: 29-01-2020

During the last week of January I was able to create a weaving test version with Aitex in Alcoy. Quico helped me to create the woven fabric. He knows how to control the weaving machine. The process of the mono filament warp needs to be done by hand. This was done one day before by two Aitex employers. Each warp filament needs to be transported by hand through the frame of the weaving machine. Quico placed the warp into the weaving machine to prepare the weaving process. The prototype of the Adaptive Archi-Filament (weft) was applied to create the fabric. It became clear that the final version of the filament needs to get a double dip-coating production process. During weaving the yarn started to unravel and this was not optimal. In the end we were able to create the weaving sample of 30 cm wide and 2 meters long. This was a great timing because we could show the yarn and fabric samples during the Midterm presentation in Madrid. 
Photo's @ Aitex Alcoy


During the midterm presentation in Madrid all the tech partners came to attend the Re-FREAM meetings. On the 27th of January we had a panel discussion and on the 28th all the artists gave a 10 minute presentation at the IED university, center for higher education of design. Aitex mentor Jaime and myself explained about the current developments and the next steps towards the final Re-FREAM presentation. Currently all the yarn prototypes from Aitex and Wood K Plus are almost production ready. During April I will work with TextileLab Tilburg to create the fabrics. And finally some metal constructions will be produced to start the outdoor weather experiments. Click on section ''water wire'' at the Studio Adaptive Skins menu and you will find all the steps of the tailored by weather installations.
Midterm photo: SOMOSMONOS foto & video


Update 16: 20-01-2020
Empa ''Sam'' sweat robot test. >Tailored by sweat<
Agnes from Empa material technology tested the two Marinero Satin and Panama samples. Compared to the ''tailored by weather experiment'' the Empa robot test shows another way of material versus sweat behavior. The matrix demonstrates that the chest and hips parts are the most effecting, because these body parts have a direct connection with the fabric. However the sweat also finds its way around the direct contact areas, depending where it moves through the fabric. This means that movement also will have an influence in making contact with the fabric. This robot experiment inspired me to think about a future project focusing on sweat. This seems an interesting step after having focused on the weather. In this case the next stage of project Marinero will go from external towards more internal.
Underneath you will see an example of the Panama garment (on the left) and the Satin garment (on the right) before and after effects.
Panama on the left shows more direct contact with the body - Satin shows more abstract 3D shape moving away from the body


Update 15: 23-12-2019

The building of TextileMuseum st.Gallen exists from the year 1886. It was initially build as a library and school for pattern design. Studio Adaptive Skins member Jef had a private tour at the library. It was very inspiring to hear the history of the region. The beginning of the 19th century Swiss people were poor, so they had to be resourceful with their local products. The locals made jewelry of straw. Aargau is the origin of the straw-braids technique. St. Gallen is famous for its lace production. Around 4000 pattern books are safely stored in the library and can be seen under supervision. The Museum also showcases seasonal changing expositions. The upcoming exposition will be about new materials medio 2020.


Update 14: 23-12-2019 Empa working plan

Benchmark test for archi filaments (status 17.12.2019)

1) Quantification of yarn and fabric structure transformation with relative humidity


  • Climatic chamber settings 20% and 80%
  • Samples yarns and fabric samples placed on humidity resistant raster
  • Video camera, scale


  • Measurement over 18h
  • First 20% and then 80%
  • Samples geometry measured before and after

2) Quantification of yarn and fabric structure transformation with liquid water


  • Climatic chamber settings 20%
  • Samples yarns and fabric samples placed on humidity resistant raster
  • Video camera, scale


  • Samples geometry measured before and after

3) Quantification of the effect of dress transformation due to sweating on its appearance and thermal resistance


  • Climatic chamber settings 20C, 30%
  • Thermal manikin with fabric skin
  • Video camera
  • 3D scanner


  • PVA dresses (Panama and satin)
  • New dresses (2 types, optionally more)
  • Protocol:
  • 2D scanning before and after sweating test (if it works)
  • Thermal resistance measurement before and after sweating test
  • Sweating test over few hours with additional walking phase at the end of sweating phase18h
  • Video camera record of entire sweating phase with geometrical transformation of the dress (from front)


  • Demonstrative videos to observe geometrical transformation of the dress when the moisture comes from inside (sweating) as opposed to outside (weather).
  • Estimation of the thermal effect of the geometrical transformation on the human body

4) Rooftop experiment (quantification of effect of weather conditions on geometrical transformation of the dress)


  • Rooftop at Empa (administrative building)
  • 4-6 torso manikins on the rack
  • Rack (needs to be clarified if it will be shipped or built on site by Empa technician)
  • Webcam


  • Measurement during month May 2020
  • Samples:
  • 4-6 dresses made of different archi filaments

5) Application potential analysis

  • Based on quantified geometrical transformation of fabrics made with archi filaments, a theoretical ap-plication potential analysis will be carried out to identify possible future practical application of the fabrics as well as the target transformation for optimal performance.


Update 13: 23-12-2019
The last Re-FREAM meeting of the year 2019 was dedicated to Empa in Switzerland. Studio Adaptive Skins provided 2 of the Marinero first blueprints from experiment 1 & 2. Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology will analyse these garments on sweat mannequins. Parameters will be analysed and date will be collected. The rain is more an organic process that you can not really capture data within the deformation of the actual garments. The sweat mannequin controls the moisture that comes from within. Within this frame we can actually see and collect data from certain parts of the body that have the most deforming fabric effect. 

Studio Adaptive Skins member Jef got a tour at Empa on 16 December. Collaborating scientist Agnes Psikuta demonstrated the photo climatic chamber -> sweat mannequin -> computer controlled mannequin ''SAM''. 

-Measuring climate chamber
-Control humidity
-Manage sweat rate
*Reference poster ''Family mannequins''
*More prototypes developed
  • -Sweating plate late 90's
  • -Sweating arm sleeves -> retired late 90's - *not made by Empa. Bought and researched
  • -sweating torso - *system build up by Empa -> *Allows you measure a sandwich of materials
Controlled system by flat = great analyse
  1. Drape is more difficult to capture
  2. Sample a and b are to abstract
  1. -sweating head helmets ( buried under the ground after technical difficulties *exploding head )
  2. -sweat doll
  3. -Hand ( burned ) system overhear
  • Wires in hand analyse fabrics
  • Mannequin was finished 1997 + -
  • Moving test for firefighters etc
  1. Moving system
  2. Sweating system
  • Electricity and water doesn't work well. *It needs a good technology
  • - heating comes from inside
  • Aluminium is conductive
  • Respond time is fast
  • Nano pure water
  • *Human sweat produces tiny bit of minerals
  • *Does not change the properties, so nano pure water is a good option
Room F233 *sewing lab
-Moisture management testing
-10 by 10 cm
*Final test Adaptive Archi-Filament *plus fabric usage

Cloth 3D pull test and bending test machine
  1. Parameter plus thickness measurement
  2. Plus scale for weight
  3. Grams per square meter
Rain tower
  1. Rain sensors underneath clothes
  2. Measuring change in resistance
  3. Water is conductive
  • Detect if its wet or not?
Parameters analysis
  • Mainly upper body clothing
  1. Easier to work with cotton -> Hygroscopy
  2. Means that it bounds moisture within and it holds moisture within
Rain installation:
  • Metal plates are perforated
  • Individual pipes
  • Control water of each segment ( uniform rain )
  • Controlling rain styles
  • hydraulic system for water delivery rain tower
*Rain drop poster note 1 is worst and note 5 is best - why? 1 soaks and 5 repel water. *It rolls off
Highlight note: Maybe use rain tower installation as a B option if it does not rain in the month May 2020

Click on section ''water wire'' at the Studio Adaptive Skins menu and you will find notes on the development of all the international Marinero outdoor adaptive material installation/expositions. -> Update 5 @ section water wire


Update 12: 22-12-2019
Fishbone final gelatine test @ Haratech Linz. After 1 month the fishbone gelatine tests were still laying in water at the Haratech office. In the beginning the water was transparent, but now the water became very cloudy. This is caused because of the fishbone gelatine decaying process. Things were starting to smell fishy, but no dissolving qualities as we expected. In fact the gelatine has been absorbing more water, and seems more stronger within its structure. These base material studies will help Wood K plus to follow up on their fishbone monofilament experiments. More updates about these follow ups will be posted in 2020. Underneath you will find an overview of the material measured over the last month.
Date: 14-11-2019

  1. = 85,0 mm - 242,0 gr
  2. = 83,0 mm - 430,0 gr
  3. = 78,0 mm - 205,0 gr
  4. = 74,0 mm - 241,0 gr 
  5. = 72,0 mm - 340,0 gr
Date: 21-11-2019
  1. = 90,0 mm - 274,0 gr
  2. = 90,0 mm - 447,3 gr
  3. = 85,0 mm - 229,0 gr
  4. = 82,0 mm - 277,0 gr
  5. = 78,0 mm - 347,0 gr
Date: 13-12-2019
  1. = 81,0 mm - 191,3 gr
  2. = 76,0 mm - 265,2 gr
  3. = 69,0 mm - 137,6 gr
  4. = 72,0 mm - 205,3 gr
  5. = 67,0 mm - 210,6 gr


Update 11: 22-12-2019 Wood K plus x Adaptive Archi-Filament 2nd version (B)

Start with multi-filament and continue to mono-filament

Few questions:
Challenge in the process?
-smooth and now texture - why?
-upgrade output 90 gr per hour normally 3 kg
-different speeds -> low speed on belt increases output to filament
-idea was to make the wave within texture 
-> effect reached *also a stretch mechanical component inside the 0,4mm version
-making process = texture tape on wheel and holding it by hand during production ( improvise )

*Option 3d effect textiellab
-Gradient pva yarn vs a.a.f
-Soluble and bursting vs elastic effect?

Click on section ''yarn'' at the Studio Adaptive Skins menu and you will find notes on the first Wood K plus version of the Adaptive Archi-Filament. -> Update 5 @ section yarn

Update 10: 22-12-2019
Medio December was the first meeting with Wood K plus in Linz. We got a tour inside the Johannes Kepler University Linz demonstrating all the services and techniques that the company offers. The facility main office and showroom of W.K+ are inside the university ( photo ref. below ) . It was surprising to see an experiment with one of their products, analyzing quality checks after 10 years exposure to several weather conditions. *Optical problem <-> mechanical problem / materials: wood in combination with polymers. You could actually see that the material was affected by mold and moss. This was very inspiring in terms of the connection with project Marinero and outside weather experiments.

-Filament extrusion * access to the institute of injection molding
  • Quality control diameter checks
  • Air or water pass
  • Conical extrude - diameter diversity ( paralel extrude = continues diameter )
  • Ovens ( photo ref. ) are for carbon fibers *only to create carbon fibers.
  • Final materials are for example: coffee filters etc ( photo ref. plastic boxes )
- Extrusion hall
  • Compounding of low filt materials
  • Bigger machines ( photo ref. ) are fir higher filt ( bigger amount )

Wood K plus: We are a leading research institute in the area wood and wood-related renewable resources in Europe. Our core competences are materials research and process technology along the complete value chain – from raw material to finished products. We develop methods and basics and perform applied research on the economy-science interface.


Update 9: 21-12-2019
In December Jef and Kevin went to Austria to visit the Fashion and Technology department (F&T) at the Linz art university (UFG). The fashion department has an interesting collection of antique industrial Italian knitting machines. Kevin worked on the double bed knitting machine to produce some material samples, with the Aitex version of the Adaptive Archi-Filement. The final step was to test the deforming effect of the material. To see and analyse the effect of the Archi-Filament, within a knitting structure. Click on section ''knitting'' at the Studio Adaptive Skins menu and you will find Kevin's notes on the first water experiment. -> Update 3 @ section knitting


Update 8: 07-12-2019
Alcoy has a beautiful history of Textile Industry. Studio Adaptive Skins attended an intimate exclusive tour at the local textile museum showcasing an interesting historical overview on textile machine developments. A very emotionally moving exposition, where you could actually experience these old forgotten machines. Several generations could see these old machines working again producing fabrics. The most personally inspiring was to actually see and read all the info about the local hard working people in textile factories throughout the years.


Update 7: 05-12-2019 Adaptive Archi-Filament design prototype test


Update 6: 24-11-2019

The last two weeks of November Studio Adaptive Skins is working together with Aitex Textile Research Institute Alcoy to develop the first tests of the adaptive-archi-filament. We agreed to first work on the understanding of all the filament producing machines, and after following up how we can use this technology to integrate with the adaptive archi-filament concept. Underneath you can find photo´s and information about the industrial filament production machines + Aitex technician team.

Multi filament machine ( Salvador Giner Grau )

  • 1 day machine prep process
  • Many detailed steps before to be able to use the machine
  • Can use different (bio) polymer materials
  • 1 continuous filament (non broken)
  • Linear filament core structure means strong, crossing means weaker
  • More filaments twisted into 1 synthetic yarn
  • Material = poly-amide 6 recycled multi filament

Filament finishing machine  ( Rafael Escorcia Serrano )
Several twisting techniques. Mechanic changes to the yarn.
Primitive machines simple twisting, two for one twisting, hollow spindle twisting, ring twisting, direct cabling twisting and simple twisting.

  • Single yarn covering
  • Multi-yarn covering
  • Hamel twisting
  • Double yarn twisting
  • Multi-color mulin twisting
  • Multi yarn twisting
  • Multi yarn parallel twisting
  • Cross yarn covering
  • Siro twisting
  • Lycra covering twisting

Compound extrude machine  ( Salvador Giner Grau )

  • Mix materials polymers additives
  • Experiment with different polymers
  • Mixing these particles (crisps)
  • Using to create monofilament
  • To create base material for monofilament
  • *Bio polymer = pla, phb, pcl, pva - bio polymer that are not synthetic = starch corn and potato

Weaving machine ( Francisco Rico Vilaplana )

  • Able to create wrap (vertical) and weft (horizontal) inside Aitex
  • *normally you can be more creative with the weft, but with this machine it can also be with the wrap
  • *we can simulate the Marinero blueprint on smaller scale and test how the filament behaves in a fabric
  • Max 50 cm weft weaving
  • *idea making miniature samples with my own designed yarns
  • Can change weaving styles from satin to panama etc
  • Machine dobby loom = name technology
  • Handcraft prep before starting the fabric weaving production

Drawn textured yarn machine ( Rafael Escorcia Serrano )

§  Sample yarns shown are synthetic polymers

§  This machine can only texture continuous filaments. It can not texture the are broken up in parts ( open end )

§  The friction disks are the key elements that create the texture

§  Before the friction disks a stretching is added using the heaters and godets velocities to increase the yarn tenacity.

§  There are 2 different types of heaters:  polyester/polyamide heater and  polypropylene/polyethylene

§  The more disks means more friction *need to find a balance for the limits depending yarn type

§  The process objective is to change the plastic aspect of the yarn giving it a volume similar to natural fibres.

Monofilament machine ( Miguel Muñoz Pina )

  • Several mono machine metal head designs
  • These so called heads are placed at the mouth of the monofilament machine
  • *reference multifilament machine -> cascade effect -> 1 hole = mono ( middle hole ) the 2 extra holes next to it are bi-component, and used when you want to create a ´coating´
  • Breaker = where you put the filter in the 2nd part ( to create the mono )
  • *metal head designs are produced loyal with an Aitex partner -> fountain metal parts - rulers
  • New idea for metal head design -> contact local producer to make new ones
  • *monofilament production baths are used (cool bath) poly-amide * related materials. Some materials ( polyester and related ) must go into a 40´C bath. The production flow will simply work better.
  • Monofilament production tip = there are more machines involved within this chain. Some machines can be in and excluded based on the materials ( polymers/crisp parts )
  • *adaptive archi-filament tip -> = melt coating
  • Process monofilament machine = trying to find balance between start and end ( depending polymers )
  • Challenge is -> when the monofilament falls off the machine wheels rules. It can slow down the prep process.

Air jet texturing machine ( Rafael Escorcia Serrano )

§  Sample yarns shown are synthetic polymers

§  This machine can only texture continuous filaments. It can not texture the are broken up in parts ( open end )

§  The wheel temperature of the machine causes a stretching which increases the tenacity/strength of the yarn.

§   Water used inside the machine allows the yarn to prepare filament to the air pressure.

§  An air pressure jet “destroy” the filaments creating interlaced curls which gives the volume to the yarn.

§  *controlled defect effect. You can add more or less defect to the yarn. The yarn looks like it is more textured ( hairy ) in some parts. -No.

§  Fancy controlled defect effect. You can add more or less defect to the yarn. The yarn looks like it is more textured ( hairy ) in some parts.

§  The process objective is to change the plastic aspect of the yarn giving it a volume similar to natural fibres.

Open end machine ( Paulino Morant Gisbert )

The main components are:
    -Dis-integrator cylinder: To position the parallel fibres
    -Adaptor: it carries the fibre of the breaker to the rotor
    -Rotor: rotates at high speed to give torsion and generate the thread
    -Nozzle: Provides twist to the thread
    -Torque stop: gives an extra torque

Maximum fibre length that can be used is 60mm.
The splice is the union of the fibres to be able to wind the thread.
Find a joint equal to the thread so that it is not noticed.

    1.The wick enters the splitter cylinder
    2. Individual fibres pass to the rotor area
    3. The fibres enter the rotor where the thread is formed by the speed of rotation, producing the twisting effect
    4. The thread comes out of the nozzle
    5. Go through the Torque Stop that gives you extra torque
    6. The thread is wound
    7. The finished coil is removed

Cut machine ( Salvador Giner Grau )
Steps: Multifilament yarn and than we put the bobbins. In the fillet where the filaments are joined and inserted into the cutting head to obtain the short fibres.

Cut machine process
Insert the blades into the head.
Mount the cutting head on the machine.
Cutting head is cutting roller.

Sintetical fibers:
- Compounding
- Multifilament spinning
- Texturing process (air textured yarn or drawn textured yarn)

Mixing fibers:
- compounding
- multifilament spinning
- crimp process
- cutting process
- mixing process
- carding process
- open end


Update 5: 22-11-2019
The third week of November I visited Haratech in Linz to start the Re-FREAM co-creation process. The team and I experimented on working with fish bone gelatin. We need to test the material for the soluble capsule that will surround the core of the adaptive archi-filament. We made 5 options starting the gelatin experiment with cold water, boiled water and cold water heated in an oven. After 24 hours the materials were all firm with several textures. The cold water showed a bubble texture, the boiled water showed a transparent texture, and the oven heated versions showed a misty transparent texture. The final step of the first experiment was to put the samples into water. To see the soluble effect of the gelatin. After another 24 hours the gelatin inside the water showed no change.

  • Research shown in the picture above from left to fight (fbg = fish bone gelatin)
  • LEFT = 20 ml fbg mixed with 200 ml cold water = bubble effect
  • LEFT MIDDLE =  20 ml fbg mixed with 400 ml cold water = bubble semi transparent effect
  • MIDDLE = 20 ml fbg mixed with 200 ml boiled water = transparent effect
  • MIDDLE RIGHT = 20 ml fbg mixed with 200 ml cold water. Put in the oven -> 50´ + 30 min  = misty effect
  • RIGHT = 20 ml fbg mixed with 400 ml cold water. Put in the oven -> 50´ + 30 min = misty transparent effect
  • Conclusion soluble effect after putting the samples 24H in a bucket of tap water = absorbs water -> non soluble


Update 4: 21-11-2019

On 07-11-2019 Studio Adaptive Skins visited the Vienna Textile Lab. The meeting was with professor Karin Fleck and her laboratory team. The demonstration showed a process on how to dye textile with bacteria. The Vienna Textile Lab team have a close connection with creative local artists who collect several bacteria in the Vienna forest area. In the lab they have a database where all the collected bacteria´s are analysed and categorised. Some bacteria´s produce more brighter colours than others. For Studio Adaptive Skins some plans are scheduled to allow the bacteria´s to dye the garments in a non controlled way. It´s a natural and sustainable process. Studio will document this process to showcase the steps. Underneath you can find impressions of the Textile Lab in Vienna. Plus related inspirational photo documentations at MAK Museum design lab Vienna. Bacteria artwork from artist Sonja Bäumel and the ocean cleanup project. All related topics connected to Studio Adaptive Skins and project Marinero.


Update 3: 23-10-2019
The photographs underneath show the Marinero campaign. The photo's were made in Valencia with model Alejandro Rentería Almaráz.
Photo @ Valencia - (C) Studio Adaptive Skins


Update 2: 22-10-2019
During my stay in Alcoy I was intrigued by empty ruins that can be found in the city center of Alcoy. I found out that these ruins were textile factories. They were build to have a great potential economically. But during the economic crisis the city had to close down and stop building most of these factories. The buildings are impossible to enter. The doors are closed down with bricks and cement. For the project I want to do a small research on the history and possible future for these buildings. I was informed that Alcoy had a huge potential textile wise. I want to know what happend with these dreams. The photographs underneath demonstrate the state of one of these textile factories.
Photo @ Alcoy

Update 1: 21-10-2019
The first steps of project Re-FREAM have been made. The first meeting was in September during Ars Electronica in Linz. This was a moment for everybody to get to know each other. The 10 lucky international designers explained their projects and made plans with the platform to define what they want to develop within the coming year. Studio Adaptive Skins specifically want to develop the yarns and filaments within project Re-FREAM. It is a great chance for designers to get more deeper inside the fashion industry. Being able to explore and collaborate in places that are normally not reachable or really difficult to get inside as an individual. Each designer will get specific places inside the EU to work on their projects.

Studio Adaptive Skins will work with HUBS Valencia and Linz. The second meeting that we had was in October to visit the Aitex company in Alcoy/Spain. The company presented a very interesting process on all the different things that they offer within the Aitex textile research institute. The photographs underneath demonstrate a fraction of the services that Aitex offers. It was amazing to see and hear on how they produce all their yarns and filaments. The team was very open to listen to the dreams that Studio Adaptive Skins has for project Marinero. Looking very much forward to work more with Aitex. The first idea is to create monofilaments and yarns mixed with recycled sea plastic and algae.
Photo @ Aitex

Studio Adaptive Skins wins the Re-FREAM award 2019. The 55.000 euro prize will be invested for the development of the Marinero yarns and filaments. Re-FREAM is funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020research and innovation program under grant agreement NO 825647. Studio Adaptive Skins will get the opportunity to work in HUBS Valencia and Linz. Interdisciplinary collaborations are needed to create the collection. On this page updates will be placed about the whole process of Re-FREAM.
Photo @ Triëste