Update 8: 07-12-2019
Alcoy has a beautiful history of Textile Industry. Studio Adaptive Skins attended an intimate exclusive tour at the local textile museum showcasing an interesting historical overview on textile machine developments. A very emotionally moving exposition, where you could actually experience these old forgotten machines. Several generations could see these old machines working again producing fabrics. The most personally inspiring was to actually see and read all the info about the local hard working people in textile factories throughout the years.


Update 7: 05-12-2019 Adaptive Archi-Filament design prototype test


Update 6: 24-11-2019

The last two weeks of November Studio Adaptive Skins is working together with Aitex Textile Research Institute Alcoy to develop the first tests of the adaptive-archi-filament. We agreed to first work on the understanding of all the filament producing machines, and after following up how we can use this technology to integrate with the adaptive archi-filament concept. Underneath you can find photo´s and information about the industrial filament production machines + Aitex technician team.

Multi filament machine ( Salvador Giner Grau )

  • 1 day machine prep process
  • Many detailed steps before to be able to use the machine
  • Can use different (bio) polymer materials
  • 1 continuous filament (non broken)
  • Linear filament core structure means strong, crossing means weaker
  • More filaments twisted into 1 synthetic yarn
  • Material = poly-amide 6 recycled multi filament

Filament finishing machine  ( Rafael Escorcia Serrano )
Several twisting techniques. Mechanic changes to the yarn.
Primitive machines simple twisting, two for one twisting, hollow spindle twisting, ring twisting, direct cabling twisting and simple twisting.

  • Single yarn covering
  • Multi-yarn covering
  • Hamel twisting
  • Double yarn twisting
  • Multi-color mulin twisting
  • Multi yarn twisting
  • Multi yarn parallel twisting
  • Cross yarn covering
  • Siro twisting
  • Lycra covering twisting

Compound extrude machine  ( Salvador Giner Grau )

  • Mix materials polymers additives
  • Experiment with different polymers
  • Mixing these particles (crisps)
  • Using to create monofilament
  • To create base material for monofilament
  • *Bio polymer = pla, phb, pcl, pva - bio polymer that are not synthetic = starch corn and potato

Weaving machine ( Francisco Rico Vilaplana )

  • Able to create wrap (vertical) and weft (horizontal) inside Aitex
  • *normally you can be more creative with the weft, but with this machine it can also be with the wrap
  • *we can simulate the Marinero blueprint on smaller scale and test how the filament behaves in a fabric
  • Max 50 cm weft weaving
  • *idea making miniature samples with my own designed yarns
  • Can change weaving styles from satin to panama etc
  • Machine dobby loom = name technology
  • Handcraft prep before starting the fabric weaving production

Drawn textured yarn machine ( Rafael Escorcia Serrano )

§  Sample yarns shown are synthetic polymers

§  This machine can only texture continuous filaments. It can not texture the are broken up in parts ( open end )

§  The friction disks are the key elements that create the texture

§  Before the friction disks a stretching is added using the heaters and godets velocities to increase the yarn tenacity.

§  There are 2 different types of heaters:  polyester/polyamide heater and  polypropylene/polyethylene

§  The more disks means more friction *need to find a balance for the limits depending yarn type

§  The process objective is to change the plastic aspect of the yarn giving it a volume similar to natural fibres.

Monofilament machine ( Miguel Muñoz Pina )

  • Several mono machine metal head designs
  • These so called heads are placed at the mouth of the monofilament machine
  • *reference multifilament machine -> cascade effect -> 1 hole = mono ( middle hole ) the 2 extra holes next to it are bi-component, and used when you want to create a ´coating´
  • Breaker = where you put the filter in the 2nd part ( to create the mono )
  • *metal head designs are produced loyal with an Aitex partner -> fountain metal parts - rulers
  • New idea for metal head design -> contact local producer to make new ones
  • *monofilament production baths are used (cool bath) poly-amide * related materials. Some materials ( polyester and related ) must go into a 40´C bath. The production flow will simply work better.
  • Monofilament production tip = there are more machines involved within this chain. Some machines can be in and excluded based on the materials ( polymers/crisp parts )
  • *adaptive archi-filament tip -> = melt coating
  • Process monofilament machine = trying to find balance between start and end ( depending polymers )
  • Challenge is -> when the monofilament falls off the machine wheels rules. It can slow down the prep process.

Air jet texturing machine ( Rafael Escorcia Serrano )

§  Sample yarns shown are synthetic polymers

§  This machine can only texture continuous filaments. It can not texture the are broken up in parts ( open end )

§  The wheel temperature of the machine causes a stretching which increases the tenacity/strength of the yarn.

§   Water used inside the machine allows the yarn to prepare filament to the air pressure.

§  An air pressure jet “destroy” the filaments creating interlaced curls which gives the volume to the yarn.

§  *controlled defect effect. You can add more or less defect to the yarn. The yarn looks like it is more textured ( hairy ) in some parts. -No.

§  Fancy controlled defect effect. You can add more or less defect to the yarn. The yarn looks like it is more textured ( hairy ) in some parts.

§  The process objective is to change the plastic aspect of the yarn giving it a volume similar to natural fibres.

Open end machine ( Paulino Morant Gisbert )

The main components are:
    -Dis-integrator cylinder: To position the parallel fibres
    -Adaptor: it carries the fibre of the breaker to the rotor
    -Rotor: rotates at high speed to give torsion and generate the thread
    -Nozzle: Provides twist to the thread
    -Torque stop: gives an extra torque

Maximum fibre length that can be used is 60mm.
The splice is the union of the fibres to be able to wind the thread.
Find a joint equal to the thread so that it is not noticed.

    1.The wick enters the splitter cylinder
    2. Individual fibres pass to the rotor area
    3. The fibres enter the rotor where the thread is formed by the speed of rotation, producing the twisting effect
    4. The thread comes out of the nozzle
    5. Go through the Torque Stop that gives you extra torque
    6. The thread is wound
    7. The finished coil is removed

Cut machine ( Salvador Giner Grau )
Steps: Multifilament yarn and than we put the bobbins. In the fillet where the filaments are joined and inserted into the cutting head to obtain the short fibres.

Cut machine process
Insert the blades into the head.
Mount the cutting head on the machine.
Cutting head is cutting roller.

Sintetical fibers:
- Compounding
- Multifilament spinning
- Texturing process (air textured yarn or drawn textured yarn)

Mixing fibers:
- compounding
- multifilament spinning
- crimp process
- cutting process
- mixing process
- carding process
- open end


Update 5: 22-11-2019
The third week of November I visited Haratech in Linz to start the Re-FREAM co-creation process. The team and I experimented on working with fish bone gelatin. We need to test the material for the soluble capsule that will surround the core of the adaptive archi-filament. We made 5 options starting the gelatin experiment with cold water, boiled water and cold water heated in an oven. After 24 hours the materials were all firm with several textures. The cold water showed a bubble texture, the boiled water showed a transparent texture, and the oven heated versions showed a misty transparent texture. The final step of the first experiment was to put the samples into water. To see the soluble effect of the gelatin. After another 24 hours the gelatin inside the water showed no change.

  • Research shown in the picture above from left to fight (fbg = fish bone gelatin)
  • LEFT = 20 ml fbg mixed with 200 ml cold water = bubble effect
  • LEFT MIDDLE =  20 ml fbg mixed with 400 ml cold water = bubble semi transparent effect
  • MIDDLE = 20 ml fbg mixed with 200 ml boiled water = transparent effect
  • MIDDLE RIGHT = 20 ml fbg mixed with 200 ml cold water. Put in the oven -> 50´ + 30 min  = misty effect
  • RIGHT = 20 ml fbg mixed with 400 ml cold water. Put in the oven -> 50´ + 30 min = misty transparent effect
  • Conclusion soluble effect after putting the samples 24H in a bucket of tap water = absorbs water -> non soluble


Update 4: 21-11-2019

On 07-11-2019 Studio Adaptive Skins visited the Vienna Textile Lab. The meeting was with professor Karin Fleck and her laboratory team. The demonstration showed a process on how to dye textile with bacteria. The Vienna Textile Lab team have a close connection with creative local artists who collect several bacteria in the Vienna forest area. In the lab they have a database where all the collected bacteria´s are analysed and categorised. Some bacteria´s produce more brighter colours than others. For Studio Adaptive Skins some plans are scheduled to allow the bacteria´s to dye the garments in a non controlled way. It´s a natural and sustainable process. Studio will document this process to showcase the steps. Underneath you can find impressions of the Textile Lab in Vienna. Plus related inspirational photo documentations at MAK Museum design lab Vienna. Bacteria artwork from artist Sonja Bäumel and the ocean cleanup project. All related topics connected to Studio Adaptive Skins and project Marinero.


Update 3: 23-10-2019
The photographs underneath show the Marinero campaign. The photo's were made in Valencia with model Alejandro Rentería Almaráz.
Photo @ Valencia - (C) Studio Adaptive Skins


Update 2: 22-10-2019
During my stay in Alcoy I was intrigued by empty ruins that can be found in the city center of Alcoy. I found out that these ruins were textile factories. They were build to have a great potential economically. But during the economic crisis the city had to close down and stop building most of these factories. The buildings are impossible to enter. The doors are closed down with bricks and cement. For the project I want to do a small research on the history and possible future for these buildings. I was informed that Alcoy had a huge potential textile wise. I want to know what happend with these dreams. The photographs underneath demonstrate the state of one of these textile factories.
Photo @ Alcoy

Update 1: 21-10-2019
The first steps of project Re-FREAM have been made. The first meeting was in September during Ars Electronica in Linz. This was a moment for everybody to get to know each other. The 10 lucky international designers explained their projects and made plans with the platform to define what they want to develop within the coming year. Studio Adaptive Skins specifically want to develop the yarns and filaments within project Re-FREAM. It is a great chance for designers to get more deeper inside the fashion industry. Being able to explore and collaborate in places that are normally not reachable or really difficult to get inside as an individual. Each designer will get specific places inside the EU to work on their projects.

Studio Adaptive Skins will work with HUBS Valencia and Linz. The second meeting that we had was in October to visit the Aitex company in Alcoy/Spain. The company presented a very interesting process on all the different things that they offer within the Aitex textile research institute. The photographs underneath demonstrate a fraction of the services that Aitex offers. It was amazing to see and hear on how they produce all their yarns and filaments. The team was very open to listen to the dreams that Studio Adaptive Skins has for project Marinero. Looking very much forward to work more with Aitex. The first idea is to create monofilaments and yarns mixed with recycled sea plastic and algae.
Photo @ Aitex

Studio Adaptive Skins wins the Re-FREAM award 2019. The 55.000 euro prize will be invested for the development of the Marinero yarns and filaments. Re-FREAM is funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020research and innovation program under grant agreement NO 825647. Studio Adaptive Skins will get the opportunity to work in HUBS Valencia and Linz. Interdisciplinary collaborations are needed to create the collection. On this page updates will be placed about the whole process of Re-FREAM.
Photo @ Triëste