Update 25: 06-06-2020

*Melt coating production

Jürgen Leßlhumer from Wood K Plus wrote a summary based on interview questions:

  • Can you explain what exact materials are used to create the sample 1 textured filament?

For the production of the textured filament we used a high viscosity polyamide 6 (PA6) from DSM. The used PA6 is a film extrusion grade and was recommended by the supplier for the production of 3D printing filaments. It is lubricated and a food contact quality.

Material specific properties:

  1. Viscosity number: 210 cm3/g
  2. Melt Viscosity (260 °C): 1120 Pa s
  3. Density: 1130 kg/m3

In general polyamide 6 is a semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymer and is made by ring-opening polymerization of  ε-caprolactam.

  • How does this production process work? Please explain step by step.

For the production of the textured filament we used the following machinery:

  1. Conical twin-screw extruder with hole-die
  2. Single-screw feeder
  3. Self-made stamping unit (embossing roller + pressure roller)
  4. Cooling via band-conveyer (air)
  5. Haul off unit
  6. Winding unit

First of all the PA6 have to be pre-dried to avoid air bubbles in the filament. The dried polymer is than filled in the feeder and dosed into the extruder. In the cylinder the polymer is melted via temperature (heater bands) as well as friction, conveyed via the screws and pressed through the hole-die to form the round filament (diameter of 1.75 mm). Afterward the textured surface is created by the embossing roller. The diameter of the filament is adjusted with the haul-off speed. Last but not least the cooled filament is spooled via a winding unit.

  • What technologies are used to create the textured filament?

The basic technology is extrusion, a continuous process to produce plastic products (3D printing filaments, decking profiles, pipes, films etc.). For the shaping a simple hole-die were used. In contrast to a standard filament extrusion, an embossing step was necessary to create the textured surface.

  • What was the most challenging part to produce this filament?

The most challenging part was the development of a suitable embossing roller and to define the proper amount and positioning of the rollers. The following figures show the different development steps from the first idea and prototype to the final version with embossing and pressure roller. To reach the final diameter of 0.5 mm it was necessary to stretch the filament. This was done by increasing of the haul-off speed. It was challenging to find the right balance between the output rate of the extruder (kg/h) and the haul-off speed (m/min). Furthermore, a serial production is different to a test operation. To reach a constant filament quality, various factors have to be considered, beginning from the pre-drying of the material.

  • Do you think using the melt coating technique will work to create the original concept of the Adaptive Archi-Filament? (Some trials with mix polymers were interesting, but needed to be further researched)

We think it is possible to produce the Adaptive Archi-Filament (polymeric filament with an urge to build frizzed structures encapsulated with a water-soluble polymer) with the melt coating process. But not with the current available equipment and material combination. A collaboration with toolmakers would be necessary. In the frame of a bachelor or master thesis the right raw materials and material combination could be investigated. A realistic time to get what you want and to produce a filament which meets your expectations would be one year and more (depending on budget).

  • What is your advise in terms of our collaboration follow up in the future? How do we step forward?

Of course we are interested in a further collaboration. One possibility would be to look for a suitable funding pool. I think the best idea would be a meeting after the completion of the Re-FREAM project and trials at TextileLab. Together we should create a kind of specification sheet. This should include the expectations and technical requirements.

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Update 25: 06-06-2020

Jaime Gonzalez from Aitex wrote a summary based on interview questions:

  • Can you explain what exact materials are used to create the Archi-Filament? Explain per yarn and filament:
  1. Monofilament Elastic yarn: is a thermoplastic polyurethane synthetic fiber.
  2. Multifilament1: PLA Polylactic acid.
  3. Multifilament2: rPA recycled polyamide from sea nets.
  4. Metallic yarn: PES (Polyester) bright white yarn + PES (Polyester) bright grey yarn.
  5. Dip coating: PVA (Polyvinyl acetate).
  • What yarns did Aitex produce for the Archi-Filament? How does this process work?

We had to manufacture PLA and rPA yarns by using the melt spinning process. The solid polymers are melted in the extruder barrel and the melted materials are forced through the multiple hole mold called ´spinneret´. During this process the polymers are solidified by cooling them down with air. The process named ' as-spun fiber ' = when the resulting fibers get collected and not undergone any further treatments. At the end of these processes all fibers get collected using the spin-line winder.

The multifilament manufactured within the extruder machine had to be textured by Taslan Air-Jet texturising process:

Air-jet texturising process is a purely mechanical method that uses a cold air-stream, to produce bulked yarns of low extensibility. The air-textured yarns resemble spun yarns in their appearance and physical characteristics. The air-jet texturising process is by far the most versatile of all the yarn texturising methods. It blends filaments together during the production process.

The air textured yarn is a bulky yarn with permanent crimps and loops. Interlacing of filaments in the jet can cause the loops to be locked into the yarn. Loop frequency, loop dimensions, loop stability and physical bulk are the important characteristics of air jet textured yarns.

Yarns produced by the air-jet texturising are totally different structures. These yarns are much more closely to simulate spun yarn textures. Whereas the bulkiness of the stretch yarns decreases with the degree of the yarn tension.

  • What other yarns were used to create the Archi-Filament? Yarns that Aitex did not make. (For example the elastane.)

Metalic yarn (PES (Polyester) Bright White yarn + PES (Polyester) bright grey yarn) and monofilament Elastic yarn. This selection of materials needed to be bought from other companies in Spain. These yarns and filaments were integrated with the yarns produced by Aitex.

  • What technologies are used to create the yarns and Archi-Filament?
  1. Melt spinning process => Taslan Air Texturing => Twisting process => Dip coating.
  2. Twisting Process is how we join the different yarns (rPA + PLA + Meallic color yarn + Elastane)
  3. Dip coating with PVA.
  • What was the most challenging part to produce this yarn?

The design process starts by joining all yarns and filaments together. During the twisting process we had to control the tension of the elastane filament. This was necessary to achieve the looping effect of the Archi-Filament. The most challenging step was to balance the elastane tension versus the coating process.

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Update 24: 06-06-2020
We already reached the goal of the project by creating the Archi-Filament with Aitex. However, with Wood K Plus it's a development process that needs more time. Why ?, because the melt coating technique is a much more restricted process. We tried to work with the melt coating technique before with Aitex, but the team advised me to work with the dip coating technique. With the dip process we could do more by hand and also use a wider range of materials.

With Wood K Plus we followed up using the melt coating technique. I realized the difficulty of this process. But I still wanted to try and see what happens using this technique. It's very realistic to conclude that we need more time and effort to develop this version of the Archi-Filament. I am very thankful to the team of WK+ to have worked so many days and nights to find several production solutions.

For project Re-FREAM we decided to develop two separate filaments. Test version number 1 shows the looping shape. Test version number 2 shows the transformation process ''from stiff to flexible''. These 2 versions combined in a textile will simulate the concept of the Archi-Filament. The idea is to see and analyse how these filaments interact with each other. We will use the data collected from the tailored by weather installations. With this information we can develop new and improved prototypes.

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Update 23: 30-04-2020

The mannequins that are going to be used for the tailored by weather installations are second hand torsos from Gruppo Corso Breukelen. This company offered me a special price for the 30 mannequins. Plus 1 extra torso to make the first test sample. It’s important to test the fiberglass quality by drilling holes into the mannequin. These torsos will be hanging inside the installation frame. The torsos will be constructed with steel wires. Originally the torsos have skin colored mat finish. Painting the mannequins black will create the correct contrast with the white Marinero garments. Local artist from Arnhem Harmen Liemburg painted all the 30 torsos by hand. 

We choose to apply blackboard paint. I personally think that blackboard paint has a nice texture. It has a carbon mat texture when it’s dry, but when it’s wet the texture becomes very shiny and almost reflective. I am very happy and thankful with all the extra work that Harmen has put into all these torsos. The last stage of finishing this job is to create holes in the neck and leg parts. We used the test torso to drill several holes and check if the fiberglass did not break to much. Harmen communicates with Bart Nijboer to see where the holes need to be exactly placed. Bart needs to double check the test torso inside his designed installation frame. Finding the right balance is key! It’s all about double checking and clear communication.    

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Update 22: 07-04-2020

Previously I mentioned that March and April were going to be a challenging time. I was referring to several deadlines concerning filament and fabric producing. In this case the real challenge was to slow down experiencing the global corona crisis. I needed to adapt in terms of project goals and deadlines. The co-creation project is temporarily not the main priority anymore. It´s heartbreaking to read the news about the crisis day by day. Understanding that much love is needed in times where making physical contact is almost impossible. Staying strong, keeping faith and helping others wherever you can. Social distancing will hopefully contribute to stop spreading the virus. I hope the crisis will be solved soon.

In terms of the project we are still able to stay productive. During the crisis it is not possible to travel to the other hubs. In my case it was originally planned to focus on local production during the months February, March and April. This means that I do not need to travel to the other hubs abroad for the coming months. My team and I are producing the material installations in Arnhem. We have had a lot of fun working together, while keeping 1.5 meters distance! We are doing all we can to keep the energy very positive. Working in the Netherlands at this stage is easier for me to manage the process and having local collaborative contacts. I have been working together with a Dutch 3D artist, creating the final stage of the tailored by weather animation. This 3D render animation will help outsiders by visually explaining and showcasing how we work step by step. Another highlight is that I am also collaborating with a Dutch creative studio based in Groningen. This amazing team is dyeing Seacell silk yarns with seaweed pigment. It is very inspiring how we can still manage to be productive, even during lock-down times.

It’s not a surprise that the TextileLab fabric production is going to be postponed. I was scheduled to work with TextileLab Tilburg on the last day of March (31-03-2020). But we need to wait until the crisis ends to start rescheduling again. On the 25th of March it was announced that TextileLab will stay closed until the 1st of June. With project Re-FREAM it is possible to extend the co-creation process until late August 2020. This will help the artists to finish their projects in time.

For now we will work on what we can do locally, minimizing our lives to help others during this difficult time. Focusing on health recovery and healing the broken hearts of people. But also not to forget that healing life in general is very important. We need to be careful with how we are currently living over-consuming lifestyles. Because we need to keep in mind that we are still experiencing a global warming issue. It will be a matter of time when we start to realize that minimizing will possibly be a life style that humans in general need to consider in the future.

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Update 21: 07-03-2020
March is an exciting month during the project. All deadlines for the Archi-Filament production need to be finished and shipped to TextileLab Tilburg before the end of this month. My filament creation mentor Jaime Gonzales from Aitex has been preparing the production of the Aitex Archi-Filament. During the production process the idea was to order materials from Aitex partners. Unfortunately because of the lack of time left Jaime was forced to produce all the yarns in Aitex. He has worked very hard to push the production of the Archi-Filament. Studio Adaptive Skins is very thankful to him that he could manage to complete the idea of the Archi-Filament. 60KM are scheduled to be finished medio March and I have all the faith that this will turn out successfully. So all the props for this stage of the project go to Jaime. Muchas gracias!!!


The process of Wood K Plus goes into another direction. We are still in the experimental fase. Jurgen and Konrad from Wood K Plus did an amazing experiment for the first Archi-Filament test. But the challenge is that this technique still needs to be discovered. They did not know what mix of polymers were used for that specific experiment. So they need to ask and work with a chemist to find out the right balance and duplicate the same technique again. With Aitex we are focusing on the dipcoating technique and with Wood K Plus we are focusing on the melt coating technique. The same concept of the Archi-Filament, but executed in totally different ways. The status right now for Wood K Plus is that we will look what we can still do with the time left. If we find something that works over the next weeks we can try to produce 10KM minimum. With this amount I can use the filament to create at least 1 weaving and 1 knitting fabric prototype. Image 1 = Aitex Archi-Filament production cone and image 2 = Wood K Plus Archi-Filament initial experimental test. 

Update 20: 20-02-2020
Studio Adaptive Skins commissioned Harmen van Liemburg and Bart Nijboer to work on the tailored by weather installations. These amazing talented artists are based in Arnhem. So we will work as a group together on this ambitious plan. *Harmen is an artist/ graphic designer/ screenprinter, mostly working on the autonomous side of the professional spectrum.* He will work on painting the mannequins and he will drill holes in the neck and knees parts. Bart will work on the steel construction installations. *Bart is an artist specialized in spatial images that are composed of different forms and objects, referring to processes in nature.* The creation process started with meeting at the studio of Harmen. Here we prepared the working plan and also admired Harmens beautiful work. To follow the weather by installation process go to -> Menu and click on section ''WATER WIRE'' and go to -> update 8.

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Update 19: 12-02-2020
''Tailored by weather'' versus ''tailored by sweat''

*PANAMA - mono-filament warp & PVA yarn weft.
- Underneath on the left you can see the technical drawing of the tailored by weather.
- Underneath on the right you can the technical drawing of the tailored by sweat.
* Conclusion 

- Weather effect (LEFT) = accentuates the body shapes by bursting effect.
* Rain, humidity, snow, wind and sun warmth have a direct influence on the deforming process.

- Sweat robot effect (RIGHT)  = specific body parts moisture ''chest, waist, hips and upper leg''. 

* Material adapts to the sweat areas ''figure hugging'' This could be interesting from a thermodynamic point of view.

*SATIN - mono-filament warp & PVA yarn weft.
- Underneath on the left you can see the technical drawing of the tailored by weather.
- Underneath on the right you can the technical drawing of the tailored by sweat.
* Conclusion

- Weather effect (LEFT) = very linear and stiff pleats effect.
* Rain, humidity, snow, wind and sun warmth have a direct influence on the deforming process.

- Sweat robot effect (RIGHT) = dynamic stiff pleats effect versus creamy satin effect.
* Very interesting to see: ''chest, waist, hips and upper leg'' sweat parts forcing the material to deform.

* Moves away from the body creating an abstract 3D effect. 

* Aesthetically the most interesting from the sweat robot experiment.

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*Overall conclusion:

* Effect rain is all over the body - Effect sweat robot is on specific body parts.

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Update 18: 09-02-2020 Empa sweat robot Marinero panama and satin experiment

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Update 17: 29-01-2020

During the last week of January I was able to create a weaving test version with Aitex in Alcoy. Quico helped me to create the woven fabric. He knows how to control the weaving machine. The process of the mono filament warp needs to be done by hand. This was done one day before by two Aitex employers. Each warp filament needs to be transported by hand through the frame of the weaving machine. Quico placed the warp into the weaving machine to prepare the weaving process. The prototype of the Adaptive Archi-Filament (weft) was applied to create the fabric. It became clear that the final version of the filament needs to get a double dip-coating production process. During weaving the yarn started to unravel and this was not optimal. In the end we were able to create the weaving sample of 30 cm wide and 2 meters long. This was a great timing because we could show the yarn and fabric samples during the Midterm presentation in Madrid. 
Photo's @ Aitex Alcoy

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During the midterm presentation in Madrid all the tech partners came to attend the Re-FREAM meetings. On the 27th of January we had a panel discussion and on the 28th all the artists gave a 10 minute presentation at the IED university, center for higher education of design. Aitex mentor Jaime and myself explained about the current developments and the next steps towards the final Re-FREAM presentation. Currently all the yarn prototypes from Aitex and Wood K Plus are almost production ready. During April I will work with TextileLab Tilburg to create the fabrics. And finally some metal constructions will be produced to start the outdoor weather experiments. Click on section ''water wire'' at the Studio Adaptive Skins menu and you will find all the steps of the tailored by weather installations.
Midterm photo: SOMOSMONOS foto & video

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Update 16: 20-01-2020
Empa ''Sam'' sweat robot test. >Tailored by sweat<
Agnes from Empa material technology tested the two Marinero Satin and Panama samples. Compared to the ''tailored by weather experiment'' the Empa robot test shows another way of material versus sweat behavior. The matrix demonstrates that the chest and hips parts are the most effecting, because these body parts have a direct connection with the fabric. However the sweat also finds its way around the direct contact areas, depending where it moves through the fabric. This means that movement also will have an influence in making contact with the fabric. This robot experiment inspired me to think about a future project focusing on sweat. This seems an interesting step after having focused on the weather. In this case the next stage of project Marinero will go from external towards more internal.
Underneath you will see an example of the Panama garment (on the left) and the Satin garment (on the right) before and after effects.
Panama on the left shows more direct contact with the body - Satin shows more abstract 3D shape moving away from the body

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Update 15: 23-12-2019

The building of TextileMuseum st.Gallen exists from the year 1886. It was initially build as a library and school for pattern design. Studio Adaptive Skins member Jef had a private tour at the library. It was very inspiring to hear the history of the region. The beginning of the 19th century Swiss people were poor, so they had to be resourceful with their local products. The locals made jewelry of straw. Aargau is the origin of the straw-braids technique. St. Gallen is famous for its lace production. Around 4000 pattern books are safely stored in the library and can be seen under supervision. The Museum also showcases seasonal changing expositions. The upcoming exposition will be about new materials medio 2020.

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Update 14: 23-12-2019 Empa working plan

Benchmark test for archi filaments (status 17.12.2019)

1) Quantification of yarn and fabric structure transformation with relative humidity

Setup:

  • Climatic chamber settings 20% and 80%
  • Samples yarns and fabric samples placed on humidity resistant raster
  • Video camera, scale

Protocol:

  • Measurement over 18h
  • First 20% and then 80%
  • Samples geometry measured before and after

2) Quantification of yarn and fabric structure transformation with liquid water

Setup:

  • Climatic chamber settings 20%
  • Samples yarns and fabric samples placed on humidity resistant raster
  • Video camera, scale

Protocol:

  • Samples geometry measured before and after

3) Quantification of the effect of dress transformation due to sweating on its appearance and thermal resistance

Setup:

  • Climatic chamber settings 20C, 30%
  • Thermal manikin with fabric skin
  • Video camera
  • 3D scanner

Samples:

  • PVA dresses (Panama and satin)
  • New dresses (2 types, optionally more)
  • Protocol:
  • 2D scanning before and after sweating test (if it works)
  • Thermal resistance measurement before and after sweating test
  • Sweating test over few hours with additional walking phase at the end of sweating phase18h
  • Video camera record of entire sweating phase with geometrical transformation of the dress (from front)

Analysis:

  • Demonstrative videos to observe geometrical transformation of the dress when the moisture comes from inside (sweating) as opposed to outside (weather).
  • Estimation of the thermal effect of the geometrical transformation on the human body

4) Rooftop experiment (quantification of effect of weather conditions on geometrical transformation of the dress)

Setup:

  • Rooftop at Empa (administrative building)
  • 4-6 torso manikins on the rack
  • Rack (needs to be clarified if it will be shipped or built on site by Empa technician)
  • Webcam

Protocol:

  • Measurement during month May 2020
  • Samples:
  • 4-6 dresses made of different archi filaments

5) Application potential analysis

  • Based on quantified geometrical transformation of fabrics made with archi filaments, a theoretical ap-plication potential analysis will be carried out to identify possible future practical application of the fabrics as well as the target transformation for optimal performance.

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Update 13: 23-12-2019
The last Re-FREAM meeting of the year 2019 was dedicated to Empa in Switzerland. Studio Adaptive Skins provided 2 of the Marinero first blueprints from experiment 1 & 2. Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology will analyse these garments on sweat mannequins. Parameters will be analysed and date will be collected. The rain is more an organic process that you can not really capture data within the deformation of the actual garments. The sweat mannequin controls the moisture that comes from within. Within this frame we can actually see and collect data from certain parts of the body that have the most deforming fabric effect. 

Studio Adaptive Skins member Jef got a tour at Empa on 16 December. Collaborating scientist Agnes Psikuta demonstrated the photo climatic chamber -> sweat mannequin -> computer controlled mannequin ''SAM''. 

-Measuring climate chamber
-Control humidity
-Manage sweat rate
*Reference poster ''Family mannequins''
*More prototypes developed
  • -Sweating plate late 90's
  • -Sweating arm sleeves -> retired late 90's - *not made by Empa. Bought and researched
  • -sweating torso - *system build up by Empa -> *Allows you measure a sandwich of materials
Controlled system by flat = great analyse
  1. Drape is more difficult to capture
  2. Sample a and b are to abstract
Experiments:
  1. -sweating head helmets ( buried under the ground after technical difficulties *exploding head )
  2. -sweat doll
  3. -Hand ( burned ) system overhear
  • Wires in hand analyse fabrics
  • Mannequin was finished 1997 + -
  • Moving test for firefighters etc
  1. Moving system
  2. Sweating system
  • Electricity and water doesn't work well. *It needs a good technology
  • - heating comes from inside
  • Aluminium is conductive
  • Respond time is fast
  • Nano pure water
  • *Human sweat produces tiny bit of minerals
  • *Does not change the properties, so nano pure water is a good option
Room F233 *sewing lab
-Moisture management testing
-10 by 10 cm
*Final test Adaptive Archi-Filament *plus fabric usage

Cloth 3D pull test and bending test machine
  1. Parameter plus thickness measurement
  2. Plus scale for weight
  3. Grams per square meter
Rain tower
  1. Rain sensors underneath clothes
  2. Measuring change in resistance
  3. Water is conductive
  • Detect if its wet or not?
Parameters analysis
  • Mainly upper body clothing
  1. Easier to work with cotton -> Hygroscopy
  2. Means that it bounds moisture within and it holds moisture within
Rain installation:
  • Metal plates are perforated
  • Individual pipes
  • Control water of each segment ( uniform rain )
  • Controlling rain styles
  • hydraulic system for water delivery rain tower
*Rain drop poster note 1 is worst and note 5 is best - why? 1 soaks and 5 repel water. *It rolls off
Highlight note: Maybe use rain tower installation as a B option if it does not rain in the month May 2020

Click on section ''water wire'' at the Studio Adaptive Skins menu and you will find notes on the development of all the international Marinero outdoor adaptive material installation/expositions. -> Update 5 @ section water wire

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Update 12: 22-12-2019
Fishbone final gelatine test @ Haratech Linz. After 1 month the fishbone gelatine tests were still laying in water at the Haratech office. In the beginning the water was transparent, but now the water became very cloudy. This is caused because of the fishbone gelatine decaying process. Things were starting to smell fishy, but no dissolving qualities as we expected. In fact the gelatine has been absorbing more water, and seems more stronger within its structure. These base material studies will help Wood K plus to follow up on their fishbone monofilament experiments. More updates about these follow ups will be posted in 2020. Underneath you will find an overview of the material measured over the last month.
Date: 14-11-2019

  1. = 85,0 mm - 242,0 gr
  2. = 83,0 mm - 430,0 gr
  3. = 78,0 mm - 205,0 gr
  4. = 74,0 mm - 241,0 gr 
  5. = 72,0 mm - 340,0 gr
Date: 21-11-2019
  1. = 90,0 mm - 274,0 gr
  2. = 90,0 mm - 447,3 gr
  3. = 85,0 mm - 229,0 gr
  4. = 82,0 mm - 277,0 gr
  5. = 78,0 mm - 347,0 gr
Date: 13-12-2019
  1. = 81,0 mm - 191,3 gr
  2. = 76,0 mm - 265,2 gr
  3. = 69,0 mm - 137,6 gr
  4. = 72,0 mm - 205,3 gr
  5. = 67,0 mm - 210,6 gr

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Update 11: 22-12-2019 Wood K plus x Adaptive Archi-Filament 2nd version (B)

Start with multi-filament and continue to mono-filament

Few questions:
Challenge in the process?
-smooth and now texture - why?
-upgrade output 90 gr per hour normally 3 kg
-different speeds -> low speed on belt increases output to filament
-idea was to make the wave within texture 
-> effect reached *also a stretch mechanical component inside the 0,4mm version
-making process = texture tape on wheel and holding it by hand during production ( improvise )

Notes
*Option 3d effect textiellab
-Gradient pva yarn vs a.a.f
-Soluble and bursting vs elastic effect?

Click on section ''yarn'' at the Studio Adaptive Skins menu and you will find notes on the first Wood K plus version of the Adaptive Archi-Filament. -> Update 5 @ section yarn

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Update 10: 22-12-2019
Medio December was the first meeting with Wood K plus in Linz. We got a tour inside the Johannes Kepler University Linz demonstrating all the services and techniques that the company offers. The facility main office and showroom of W.K+ are inside the university ( photo ref. below ) . It was surprising to see an experiment with one of their products, analyzing quality checks after 10 years exposure to several weather conditions. *Optical problem <-> mechanical problem / materials: wood in combination with polymers. You could actually see that the material was affected by mold and moss. This was very inspiring in terms of the connection with project Marinero and outside weather experiments.

-Filament extrusion * access to the institute of injection molding
  • Quality control diameter checks
  • Air or water pass
  • Conical extrude - diameter diversity ( paralel extrude = continues diameter )
  • Ovens ( photo ref. ) are for carbon fibers *only to create carbon fibers.
  • Final materials are for example: coffee filters etc ( photo ref. plastic boxes )
- Extrusion hall
  • Compounding of low filt materials
  • Bigger machines ( photo ref. ) are fir higher filt ( bigger amount )

Wood K plus: We are a leading research institute in the area wood and wood-related renewable resources in Europe. Our core competences are materials research and process technology along the complete value chain – from raw material to finished products. We develop methods and basics and perform applied research on the economy-science interface.

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Update 9: 21-12-2019
In December Jef and Kevin went to Austria to visit the Fashion and Technology department (F&T) at the Linz art university (UFG). The fashion department has an interesting collection of antique industrial Italian knitting machines. Kevin worked on the double bed knitting machine to produce some material samples, with the Aitex version of the Adaptive Archi-Filement. The final step was to test the deforming effect of the material. To see and analyse the effect of the Archi-Filament, within a knitting structure. Click on section ''knitting'' at the Studio Adaptive Skins menu and you will find Kevin's notes on the first water experiment. -> Update 3 @ section knitting

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Update 8: 07-12-2019
Alcoy has a beautiful history of Textile Industry. Studio Adaptive Skins attended an intimate exclusive tour at the local textile museum showcasing an interesting historical overview on textile machine developments. A very emotionally moving exposition, where you could actually experience these old forgotten machines. Several generations could see these old machines working again producing fabrics. The most personally inspiring was to actually see and read all the info about the local hard working people in textile factories throughout the years.

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Update 7: 05-12-2019 Adaptive Archi-Filament design prototype test

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Update 6: 24-11-2019

The last two weeks of November Studio Adaptive Skins is working together with Aitex Textile Research Institute Alcoy to develop the first tests of the adaptive-archi-filament. We agreed to first work on the understanding of all the filament producing machines, and after following up how we can use this technology to integrate with the adaptive archi-filament concept. Underneath you can find photo´s and information about the industrial filament production machines + Aitex technician team.

Multi filament machine ( Salvador Giner Grau )

  • 1 day machine prep process
  • Many detailed steps before to be able to use the machine
  • Can use different (bio) polymer materials
  • 1 continuous filament (non broken)
  • Linear filament core structure means strong, crossing means weaker
  • More filaments twisted into 1 synthetic yarn
  • Material = poly-amide 6 recycled multi filament

Filament finishing machine  ( Rafael Escorcia Serrano )
Several twisting techniques. Mechanic changes to the yarn.
Primitive machines simple twisting, two for one twisting, hollow spindle twisting, ring twisting, direct cabling twisting and simple twisting.

  • Single yarn covering
  • Multi-yarn covering
  • Hamel twisting
  • Double yarn twisting
  • Multi-color mulin twisting
  • Multi yarn twisting
  • Multi yarn parallel twisting
  • Cross yarn covering
  • Siro twisting
  • Lycra covering twisting

Compound extrude machine  ( Salvador Giner Grau )

  • Mix materials polymers additives
  • Experiment with different polymers
  • Mixing these particles (crisps)
  • Using to create monofilament
  • To create base material for monofilament
  • *Bio polymer = pla, phb, pcl, pva - bio polymer that are not synthetic = starch corn and potato

Weaving machine ( Francisco Rico Vilaplana )

  • Able to create wrap (vertical) and weft (horizontal) inside Aitex
  • *normally you can be more creative with the weft, but with this machine it can also be with the wrap
  • *we can simulate the Marinero blueprint on smaller scale and test how the filament behaves in a fabric
  • Max 50 cm weft weaving
  • *idea making miniature samples with my own designed yarns
  • Can change weaving styles from satin to panama etc
  • Machine dobby loom = name technology
  • Handcraft prep before starting the fabric weaving production

Drawn textured yarn machine ( Rafael Escorcia Serrano )

§  Sample yarns shown are synthetic polymers

§  This machine can only texture continuous filaments. It can not texture the are broken up in parts ( open end )

§  The friction disks are the key elements that create the texture

§  Before the friction disks a stretching is added using the heaters and godets velocities to increase the yarn tenacity.

§  There are 2 different types of heaters:  polyester/polyamide heater and  polypropylene/polyethylene

§  The more disks means more friction *need to find a balance for the limits depending yarn type

§  The process objective is to change the plastic aspect of the yarn giving it a volume similar to natural fibres.

Monofilament machine ( Miguel Muñoz Pina )

  • Several mono machine metal head designs
  • These so called heads are placed at the mouth of the monofilament machine
  • *reference multifilament machine -> cascade effect -> 1 hole = mono ( middle hole ) the 2 extra holes next to it are bi-component, and used when you want to create a ´coating´
  • Breaker = where you put the filter in the 2nd part ( to create the mono )
  • *metal head designs are produced loyal with an Aitex partner -> fountain metal parts - rulers
  • New idea for metal head design -> contact local producer to make new ones
  • *monofilament production baths are used (cool bath) poly-amide * related materials. Some materials ( polyester and related ) must go into a 40´C bath. The production flow will simply work better.
  • Monofilament production tip = there are more machines involved within this chain. Some machines can be in and excluded based on the materials ( polymers/crisp parts )
  • *adaptive archi-filament tip -> = melt coating
  • Process monofilament machine = trying to find balance between start and end ( depending polymers )
  • Challenge is -> when the monofilament falls off the machine wheels rules. It can slow down the prep process.

Air jet texturing machine ( Rafael Escorcia Serrano )

§  Sample yarns shown are synthetic polymers

§  This machine can only texture continuous filaments. It can not texture the are broken up in parts ( open end )

§  The wheel temperature of the machine causes a stretching which increases the tenacity/strength of the yarn.

§   Water used inside the machine allows the yarn to prepare filament to the air pressure.

§  An air pressure jet “destroy” the filaments creating interlaced curls which gives the volume to the yarn.

§  *controlled defect effect. You can add more or less defect to the yarn. The yarn looks like it is more textured ( hairy ) in some parts. -No.

§  Fancy controlled defect effect. You can add more or less defect to the yarn. The yarn looks like it is more textured ( hairy ) in some parts.

§  The process objective is to change the plastic aspect of the yarn giving it a volume similar to natural fibres.

Open end machine ( Paulino Morant Gisbert )

The main components are:
    -Dis-integrator cylinder: To position the parallel fibres
    -Adaptor: it carries the fibre of the breaker to the rotor
    -Rotor: rotates at high speed to give torsion and generate the thread
    -Nozzle: Provides twist to the thread
    -Torque stop: gives an extra torque

Maximum fibre length that can be used is 60mm.
The splice is the union of the fibres to be able to wind the thread.
Find a joint equal to the thread so that it is not noticed.


Steps:
    1.The wick enters the splitter cylinder
    2. Individual fibres pass to the rotor area
    3. The fibres enter the rotor where the thread is formed by the speed of rotation, producing the twisting effect
    4. The thread comes out of the nozzle
    5. Go through the Torque Stop that gives you extra torque
    6. The thread is wound
    7. The finished coil is removed

Cut machine ( Salvador Giner Grau )
Steps: Multifilament yarn and than we put the bobbins. In the fillet where the filaments are joined and inserted into the cutting head to obtain the short fibres.

Cut machine process
Insert the blades into the head.
Mount the cutting head on the machine.
Cutting head is cutting roller.


Sintetical fibers:
- Compounding
- Multifilament spinning
- Texturing process (air textured yarn or drawn textured yarn)

Mixing fibers:
- compounding
- multifilament spinning
- crimp process
- cutting process
- mixing process
- carding process
- open end

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Update 5: 22-11-2019
The third week of November I visited Haratech in Linz to start the Re-FREAM co-creation process. The team and I experimented on working with fish bone gelatin. We need to test the material for the soluble capsule that will surround the core of the adaptive archi-filament. We made 5 options starting the gelatin experiment with cold water, boiled water and cold water heated in an oven. After 24 hours the materials were all firm with several textures. The cold water showed a bubble texture, the boiled water showed a transparent texture, and the oven heated versions showed a misty transparent texture. The final step of the first experiment was to put the samples into water. To see the soluble effect of the gelatin. After another 24 hours the gelatin inside the water showed no change.

  • Research shown in the picture above from left to fight (fbg = fish bone gelatin)
  • LEFT = 20 ml fbg mixed with 200 ml cold water = bubble effect
  • LEFT MIDDLE =  20 ml fbg mixed with 400 ml cold water = bubble semi transparent effect
  • MIDDLE = 20 ml fbg mixed with 200 ml boiled water = transparent effect
  • MIDDLE RIGHT = 20 ml fbg mixed with 200 ml cold water. Put in the oven -> 50´ + 30 min  = misty effect
  • RIGHT = 20 ml fbg mixed with 400 ml cold water. Put in the oven -> 50´ + 30 min = misty transparent effect
  • Conclusion soluble effect after putting the samples 24H in a bucket of tap water = absorbs water -> non soluble

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Update 4: 21-11-2019

On 07-11-2019 Studio Adaptive Skins visited the Vienna Textile Lab. The meeting was with professor Karin Fleck and her laboratory team. The demonstration showed a process on how to dye textile with bacteria. The Vienna Textile Lab team have a close connection with creative local artists who collect several bacteria in the Vienna forest area. In the lab they have a database where all the collected bacteria´s are analysed and categorised. Some bacteria´s produce more brighter colours than others. For Studio Adaptive Skins some plans are scheduled to allow the bacteria´s to dye the garments in a non controlled way. It´s a natural and sustainable process. Studio will document this process to showcase the steps. Underneath you can find impressions of the Textile Lab in Vienna. Plus related inspirational photo documentations at MAK Museum design lab Vienna. Bacteria artwork from artist Sonja Bäumel and the ocean cleanup project. All related topics connected to Studio Adaptive Skins and project Marinero.

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Update 3: 23-10-2019
The photographs underneath show the Marinero campaign. The photo's were made in Valencia with model Alejandro Rentería Almaráz.
Photo @ Valencia - (C) Studio Adaptive Skins

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Update 2: 22-10-2019
During my stay in Alcoy I was intrigued by empty ruins that can be found in the city center of Alcoy. I found out that these ruins were textile factories. They were build to have a great potential economically. But during the economic crisis the city had to close down and stop building most of these factories. The buildings are impossible to enter. The doors are closed down with bricks and cement. For the project I want to do a small research on the history and possible future for these buildings. I was informed that Alcoy had a huge potential textile wise. I want to know what happend with these dreams. The photographs underneath demonstrate the state of one of these textile factories.
Photo @ Alcoy

Update 1: 21-10-2019
The first steps of project Re-FREAM have been made. The first meeting was in September during Ars Electronica in Linz. This was a moment for everybody to get to know each other. The 10 lucky international designers explained their projects and made plans with the platform to define what they want to develop within the coming year. Studio Adaptive Skins specifically want to develop the yarns and filaments within project Re-FREAM. It is a great chance for designers to get more deeper inside the fashion industry. Being able to explore and collaborate in places that are normally not reachable or really difficult to get inside as an individual. Each designer will get specific places inside the EU to work on their projects.

Studio Adaptive Skins will work with HUBS Valencia and Linz. The second meeting that we had was in October to visit the Aitex company in Alcoy/Spain. The company presented a very interesting process on all the different things that they offer within the Aitex textile research institute. The photographs underneath demonstrate a fraction of the services that Aitex offers. It was amazing to see and hear on how they produce all their yarns and filaments. The team was very open to listen to the dreams that Studio Adaptive Skins has for project Marinero. Looking very much forward to work more with Aitex. The first idea is to create monofilaments and yarns mixed with recycled sea plastic and algae.
Photo @ Aitex

Studio Adaptive Skins wins the Re-FREAM award 2019. The 55.000 euro prize will be invested for the development of the Marinero yarns and filaments. Re-FREAM is funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020research and innovation program under grant agreement NO 825647. Studio Adaptive Skins will get the opportunity to work in HUBS Valencia and Linz. Interdisciplinary collaborations are needed to create the collection. On this page updates will be placed about the whole process of Re-FREAM.
Photo @ Triëste